What Are Forged Stainless Steel Flanges Used For?

Forged steel flanges are the connection fitting useful to connect larger pipes. The flanges are made of alloys and stainless steel to give strength to the extension pipe.

These forged stainless steel flanges are useful in plumbing and mechanical industries. The flanges are round, making it easy to combine the piping systems quite effortlessly.

Forged Flanges

Forged stainless steel flanges for Mechanical industries

The forged stainless steel flanges give reliable quality, high performance, and connecting operations. The relevant components are valuably designed with the right dimension in size.

Thus, it will be the right choice to hire new projects for engineering in industries. These forged stainless steel flanges are manufactured with corrosion resistance. It can also withstand temperature and heat as per atmospheric conditions.

Standard dimension

The forged steel flanges come in different standards, including in countries like Korea, Australia, Europe, and the USA. Each stand is used in all the everyday worlds. So the fitting size may vary per the dimension size of the pipes worldwide.

As per the pipe size, the standard code dimension is ASME B16. So the flanges of inch ¼ to 24 inches with standard Class 150 to 2500.

There are high chances of flanges being forged or otherwise in a cast. It is based on the type of work done by engineers. These flanges easily defect the issues caused by the industrial pipes. They are pretty much more substantial when compared to cast iron. The industries choose the type of forged steel flanges to complete the work simply.

Options for stainless steel manufacturing

Once you choose the optimal steel structure and grade to manufacture the process, you may need to compare the manufacturing options. Whether you choose stainless steel machining, casting, or forging plays a critical role in the work pieces’ reliability, affordability, and precision.

These include:

  • Forging
  • Casting
  • Machining

Why choose forged stainless steel flanges?

The forged stainless steel flanges come in with high performance, giving reliable quality with connecting operations. The relevant components are valuably designed with proper dimensions in size.

These steel flanges are manufactured with corrosion resistance. It can also withstand temperature and heat as per atmospheric conditions. The stand is used in all everyday worlds, so the fitting size may vary per the pipes’ dimension size.

Stainless steel bar suppliers for pipe fitting

The suppliers of the stainless steel flange industry are quite high. It gives sufficient fitting material to the customers. They supply products all over the different mechanical industries.

They are the standard stainless steel bar suppliers in manufacturing the right product in the world. They were exporting more stainless steel bars and carbon steel flanges to the sites.

These include:

  • Supplying the different carbon flanges with high quality.
  • Experts in the manufacturing of steel bars.
  • More corrosion-resistant materials.
  • Provides sufficient forged stainless steel flanges to the clients.
  • The leading manufacturer in stainless steel bars suppliers.

Advantages of stainless steel forging

The forging process is highly refined and needs multiple steps. From tool creation and raw material procurement to the final inspection and heat treating, it takes the necessary time to create a product that lasts longer and performs better.

Here are the advantages of stainless steel forging:

  • Improved heat resistance
  • Increased corrosion resistance
  • Oxide layer protection


If you choose the forged stainless steel flanges, hiring new engineers in the industries is right. The suppliers come with industry professionals who give suitable fitting materials to the sites. Prominently they are engaged in manufacturing compact designs in stainless steel flanges for clients.

The supply of carbon steel flanges is adequate, so the engineering works and the plan’s execution are done. The manufacture of all the appropriate materials is combined and gives the clients feasible advantages.

You can contact Texas flange if you want the best quality forged steel flanges. We will help your brand outgrow with reasonable prices even during a crisis.

The Most Common Flanges in Pipe Welding: A Comprehensive Guide

The most used flange types per the ASME B16.5 are Blind, threaded, lap joint, socket weld, slip-on, and welding neck flange. Here you will find a short description and definition of each type.

common flanges

Welding neck flange

The easily recognizable long tapered hub of a welding neck flange provides an essential reinforcement of the joint. It is helpful for elevated, sub-zero, or high pressures applications.

The taper on this flange type offers a smooth relocation/transition of stress from flange thickness to pipe or fitting wall thickness. It is crucial under repeated bending conditions caused by the line expansion or other variable forces.

Slip-on flange

If we compare the slip-on flange with the welding flange, likely, it is not as durable. However, it has two-thirds less calculated strength under internal pressure and around one-third of the life span.

They come at easy installation and low material cost, best suited for low-pressure applications with little risk of leaking.

A few other advantages of the slip-on flanges are that it doesn’t require a sizeable longitudinal space in the line to be mounted. Also, they are less aligned with a wide variety of diameters available and do not require accurate cuts in the pipe.

Socket weld flanges

Socket weld flanges were initially developed for high-pressure, small piping. The static strength of the socket weld flange is equal to the slip-on flanges, but their fatigue strength is 50% high compared to the double-welded slip-on flanges.

Before welding, a space between 1/16” and 1/8” needs a creation between the fitting or flange and pipe. It allows you to expand the pipe on the inner side of the weld and reduces the residual stress, helping to prevent the crack weld on the fitting.

Lap joint flange

Lap joint flanges share the same features as the other flanges. However, it does not have a raised face. They are connected to a lap joint stub end.

These flanges are nearly identical to the slip-on flange, except for a curved radius as the bore. It helps accommodate the flanged portion of the stub end, and you can slide it over the pipe. The pipe is usually welded to the stub end, allowing free movement of the lap joint flange.

The strength is similar to the slip-on flange as they have a fatigue life of around one-tenth compared to the welding neck flanges.

Stub end

As a backing flange, a stub end will be used with lap joint flange applications. However, they are also helpful with slip-on flanges.

Stub ends are available in almost all pipe diameters. There are three different kinds available A, B, and C.

  • Type A is something you can machine to fit the standard lap joint support flange.
  • Type B is designed to be used with a standard slip-on flange.
  • Type C is useful with either a slip-on or lap joint flange.

Threaded flange

The top advantage of the threaded flange is that no welding is required in connection to the pipe. It is done using corresponding threads. However, a seal weld is sometimes applicable in conjunction with the flange’s threaded connection.

Threaded fittings are used exclusively in smaller pipe sizes up to around 4”; however, most pressure ratings and sizes are still available.

A threaded fitting or flange only suits applications that use a thicker wall thickness due to the presence of the thread.


This guide offers a solid foundation of the common top flanges in welding, however, with the wide range of stainless steel flanges and other flange materials available.

You can contact us if you want assistance choosing the right welding equipment for your welding project.


Top Reasons to be Using Flange Fittings

Flange fittings are the components that help in connecting the pipe sections to other fluid control products. These include pumps and valves to create piping. The ordinary meaning of the term fitting relates to the importance of metal and plastic piping that helps carry the fluids.

However, other fittings help to connect handrails and other building components to the piping without providing leak-proof connections. You may be more familiar with those in your everyday life.

Flange Fittings

Meaning of flange fittings

Flange fittings can be connected mechanically, welded, threaded, and even chemically bonded. The terminology for piping, pipe, and tubing is inconsistent. As a result, the term fittings are sometimes referred to as the in-fitting specifications.

Although similar to tubing, you can join the fittings by welding, unlike ordinary welding. Few ways overlap, including the compression fittings, but their use in pipe connections is rare among these standard methods used to connect ducts or pipes.

Top reasons for using flange fittings

Although the flange fittings and flanges are one and the only option in some specific applications, flanges offer advantages to the piping systems that traditional hydraulic fitting pipes do not. For example, it is easier to connect flanges to pipe and component ports in applications with large outside diameters than threaded fittings or adapters.

Most importantly, in most severe service applications where mobile construction equipment is used, flange connections are best suited for the following:

  • Easy assembly in tight spaces where wrenched may not have the clearance to install the traditional flange fittings. It is easy to assemble with medium torque.
  • These are hard-to-reach areas that need flexibility. For example, it needs to eliminate the need for adapters in hose lines or pipes, tubing, etc.
  • Extensive hose connections, tubes, or pipes where pressure shocks, vibrations, and high pressures are present may be more likely to damage the traditional large hydraulic fittings.
  • Maintaining the connections in rigid lines such as tubing and continuous metal pipes is easy.
  • Reduces the chance of components loosening in rigorous hydraulic applications.
  • The fluid power industry is now making a shift to make connections with an elastomeric O-ring seal. It helps minimize the leakage. These fittings include the SAE straight thread, face seal, ISO 6149, SAE J518 (Code 61 and Code 62) flange, and flange fittings. Here the O-ring seal is compatible with the fluid.

A captive flange is often applicable when fitting tube-to-tube (hose or pipe). Captive flange fittings slip over the flared tube and are connected to the mating flange or some other component.

Captive flanges are commonly applicable with MJ-Flange straight fittings (aka flange adapters), where you can see a smooth clearance to slide over the fitting and seat on the flange head. Split flanges are helpful with 45° to 90° flange fittings (i.e., MJFLange 45 or 90). Split flanges come in kits (either for Code 61 or 62). These include:

  • Two halves of the flange that you can fit around the fittings at the flange head
  • The accompanying O-ring face seal
  • Four washers & bolts to secure the fitting and flange to port

Flange fitting connections are easy to assemble and provide the best options in larger-diameter applications, especially when under high pressure. They provide significant advantages over threaded fittings in many severe applications:

  • Single point sealing between hose, pipe, tube, or component port connection.
  • Provides up to 6,000 PSI capability through the size of 2” only for Code 62 and 5,000 PSI for Code 61
  • Less torque is needed to tighten vs. reaching proper torque for comparable large-size flange fittings.
  • Large connections over 7/8 to 5-inch O.D pipe or tube only for Code 61.
  • Easy to disassemble to reconfigure or maintain the system
  • Easier to assemble in tight spaces


Flange fitting connections are much less likely to loosen than standard hydraulic fittings. It has proper clamping load distribution around the flange head. It is no doubt to mention that flange connections are the best choice for hose end connections that have elbows. It is because they are subjected to very high lateral forces that tend to cause the assembly loosening.

What is the Function of Flanges and How Do They Work?

The flange industry is wide, and it offers customers a reliable way to connect pipe systems with the various valves, equipment, and other components of virtually any processing system. Flanges are the second most used joining method after welding.

Custom Pipe Flange Fittings

If you use flanges, it adds flexibility when you need to maintain piping systems. It also allows for easy disassembly and improved access to system components.

A typical flanged connection is comprised of three parts:

  • Bolting
  • Gasket
  • Pipe flanges

In many cases, specific bolting and gasket materials are made from the same or approved materials as the piping components you wish to connect. For example, stainless steel flanges are the top choice among some of the most common flanges. However, flanges are available in a wide range of materials, so matching them with your needs is crucial.

Other common flange materials include Chrome Moly, Inconel, Monel, and many others, depending on the application.

The best option for your needs depends on the system in which you intend to use the flange and your specific requirements.

Common flange types and characteristics

Flanges are not a one-type-fits-all kind of solution. If we keep the sizing aside, matching the ideal flange design to your piping system and intended usage will help to ensure optimal pricing, a long service life, and reliable operation.

Here are the most commonly available flange types:

Threaded flanges

It is also known as a screwed flange and has a style with thread inside. The flange bore fits with the matching male thread on the fitting or pipe. The threaded connections mean you can avoid welding in many use cases. If you simply match the threading o the pipes, you wish to connect.

Socket-weld flanges

Ideal for small pipe diameters in low-pressure and low-temperature scenarios, socket-weld flanges feature a connection where you place the pipe into the flange and then secure the connection with a single multi-pass fillet weld. As a result, it makes the style simpler to install compared to other welded flange types while avoiding the limitations associated with the threaded ends.

Slip-on flanges

Slip-on flanges are quite common and are available in large-size ranges. It can accommodate systems with high flow rates and throughput. You intend to connect if you match the flange to the outer pipe diameter. Installation is slightly more as you will need to fillet the weld on both sides to secure the pipe flange.

Lap joint flanges

Lap joint flanges require butt welding of the stub end to the fitting or pipe with a backing flange to create a flanged connection. The design makes this style popular for use in systems with physical systems or space that requires frequent maintenance and dismantling.

Weld neck flanges

Weld neck flanges need butt welding for installation. However, its performance, integrity in the systems with multiple repeat bends, and the ability to use them at high temperatures and high pressure make them a top choice for processing piping.

Blind flanges

Useful for isolation or terminating piping systems, blind flanges are essentially boltable blank discs. When you install them properly and combine them with the correct gaskets, it can achieve an outstanding seal that is easy to remove when needed.

Specialty flanges

The flanges types listed above are quite common. However, various specialized flange types are available to suit various environments and uses. Other options include reducing flanges, orifice, expanding flanges, weld flanges, and nipo flanges.

Flange Facing Types: Making the connection

The design is just a start when you consider the ideal flange for your piping system. Face types are another characteristic that greatly impacts your flanges’ service life and final performance.

Facing types determine the gaskets required to install the characteristics and the flange related to the seal created.

Common face types include:

  • Flat Face (FF)
  • Raised Face (RF)
  • Ring Joint Face (RTJ)
  • Tongue and Groove (T&G)
  • Male & Female (M&F)

Most face types offer one of the two finishes: smooth or serrated. Choosing between the options is crucial as it will determine the optimal gasket for a reliable seal. In general, smooth faces work best with metallic gaskets, while serrated faces help create stronger seals with soft material gaskets.

Flanges Dimensions: The Proper Fit

Apart from the functional flange design, flange dimensions are the most likely factor that impacts the flange choices when updating, maintaining, or designing a piping system. First, however, you must consider how the flange interfaces with the pipe and the gaskets in use to ensure proper sizing.

Common considerations include:

  • Nominal bore size
  • Pipe size
  • Bolt circle diameter
  • Thickness
  • Outside diameter

Flange classification and service ratings

The above characteristics will influence how the flange performs across various environments and processes.

Flanges are often classified based on their ability to withstand pressures and temperatures. It is designated using a number and either ‘class,’ ‘lb,’ or ‘#’ suffix. These suffixes are interchangeable but will differ based on the vendor or region.

Common classifications include:

  • 150#
  • 300#
  • 600#
  • 900#
  • 1500#
  • 2500#

Flange markings and standards

To make the comparison easy, flanges fall under global standards established by the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) – ASME B16.5 & B16.47.

If you are attempting to verify or replace the existing parts, all flanges must include the markers, typically on their outer perimeter, to aid in the process.


The above guide offers you a solid foundation of the basics of flange design and how to choose the ideal flange for your piping system. However, with a wide range of stainless steel flanges or other available flange materials, it is impossible to list every consideration, detail, or configuration.

You can contact Texas flange if you want the best quality flanges or have any queries regarding the flange function.

Stainless Steel VS. Carbon Steel Pipe Fittings: Which is right for Application

The choice between stainless steel or carbon steel is a question many designers, engineers, plants, and industry workers face at some point. Carbon steel and stainless steel pipes are both good choices to use in various things. However, if we get down to the basics of various steel alloys and their uses, you must better determine the type of steel that fits your application’s needs.

As we all know, most steel variants have many uses. However, even if you work with steel every day for non-pressurized or corrosion sensitive purposes, you may have never stopped considering what the difference is between regular mild steel and stainless steel. Here in this blog, we will discuss steel and how carbon steel pipe and fittings are different from stainless steel pipe and fittings.

carbon steel pipe
Meaning of steel

Steel is a type of metal known as a basic alloy. An alloy is two or more natural metal elements that meld together to make a unique metal. When we talk about steel, we talk about the kind of metal alloy that is a mixture of iron or at least one other kind of metal. Most types of steel have several metals in the mix, though their amount may differ.

Carbon steel

Carbon steel is basic steel that comes in a combination of carbon and iron. It may contain other substances in unmeasured amounts or traces. Carbon steel is classified by the amount of carbon content mixed with iron. Low-to-mid carbon steel is likely to have less than 0.3% carbon, while a high carbon may contain up to 2%. The differences in content percentage are often selected based on weldability. Carbon is known for its ability to withstand high temperatures and strength/stress.

Stainless steel

Stainless steel is created by adding chromium to the alloy. While basic carbon steel may only contain up to 2% carbon, stainless steel has a focus on general corrosion with at least a content of 10% chromium. Other elements may be present in stainless steel in immeasurable amounts with carbon steel.

The most significant characteristic of stainless steel is that it doesn’t corrode or rust as easily. Avoiding corrosion is a unique property for steel, as most mild steel is mainly made of iron, and iron tends to rust quite quickly when exposed to a regular oxygenated atmosphere.

Considerations for steel pipes

If it is becoming hard for you to decide between the carbon and stainless steel options for your pipes, here are several factors you can consider:


The first deal-breaking factor when you need to decide on the metal is to find out if it can carry out some corrosive media such as saltwater or processing chemicals. If so, you will want a metal that will not react as readily. It is probably preferable choose a stainless steel pipe, but double-check the properties of the materials you will be working with to check if they react.


Carbon steel pipes are known for their ability to withstand high heat and are great for steam pipes. However, if you are trying to work with extreme climates (for example, transporting cryogenic liquids) a different grade of pipes is essential.


Fortunately, both carbon steel and stainless steel can be very affordable in comparison to nickel alloys. Carbon steel pipes are frequently ranked as the least expensive steel for piping, but stainless steel is also usually right behind. It allows you to choose the right material that fits the best to project without having to make significant considerations regarding costs.


If your pipes will be visible and appearance is in the list of considerations, knowing the finish of these steels will help. Stainless steel usually has a shine that can hold up if exposed to the weather and other elements. On the other hand, carbon steel is darker and usually has a matte finish once painted. Unfortunately, it may also rust if exposed, deteriorating in appearance. Galvanization is also an option.


Carbon steel pipes are a popular choice for a great variety of uses. Vent and steam pipes, municipal pipes, and sewage pipes are often made of carbon steel. It would help if you considered the extra properties you might need in chemicals or temperatures. The above details can help you decide the correct steel for you.

What are the Various Factors to Identify Suitable Flanges for Your Work?

It is crucial to choose the right flange for the application. If you want the flange to function, it must fit perfectly into the pipe joints. If you make one slight mistake while selecting the flange, it may affect the application and result in a costly error. For optimum usability, you can address the considerations relevant to choosing the right flange that goes well with the applications.


Flange Size

The flange size consists of several variables. These include the right pressure class, standards used, and right flange measurement. The inner diameter, outer diameter, number of bolt holes, the diameter of the bolt holes, and the bolt circle are influences. Flanges are available in many sizes ranging from 48″ (1200NB) to 1/2″ (15NB).

Flange Types

If you identify the flange type by its appearance, it is usually easy. Decide whether the flange has a socket weld, solder collar neck, lap joint, threaded bore, or flat face and that defines the basics.

You can start by choosing if it has a flat face that is completely raised or a flat face that is a slightly raised portion on the flange face with marked bottoms. There are many different types of flanges as indicated previously, in various material grades of carbon and stainless steel.

Flange Thickness

Define a flange by how it handles the high pressure. Apart from this, thickness plays a crucial role as thicker flanges can better handle higher pressures in an application.

Bolt Holes

The pressure class and size of the flange helps to determine this component. The actual size, pitch circle diameter, and the number of bolt holes, on the flanges, are the three variables that need consideration. The stronger and heavier bolt results in higher pressure that withstands the flange. The pattern must match up to the item the flange is bolting to.

Flange Standards

You can find a range in criteria that makes it tough to choose the flange standard. It is most likely that the choice is based on the standards and application of other components to which the flanges are linked. The three major standards used are JIS (Japanese International Standard), DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung / European), and ANSI (American National Standards Institute).

Pressure Class

The pressure class is the nominal pressure quality that the product can safely work under or support. There are many pressure groups available for each standard, and it ranges from high-pressure tolerance to low-pressure tolerance. The pressure class of the items that operate together must be the same as the pressure class of the valves and pipes in the system to the ones they are connected. The pressure class of carbon and stainless steel flanges ranges from 2500#, 900#, 600#, 400#, 300#, 150#, and so on.

Flange Materials

It is crucial to select the right material for a flange. You must know the elements it will face in an application that uses the piping method is essential. Common materials include copper nickel, carbon steel, stainless steel, and steel. The supporting materials of these flanges, such as stainless Steel 317 flanges, are flange bolts, ring joining, and gaskets.

Other factors for selecting flanges

Consider the tolerances, flange dimensions, temperature and pressure ratings, and pipe materials to determine the appropriate flange material. ANSI ratings help to provide information on heat and pressure tolerances. The fitting type is one of the crucial things to consider. The material you choose must allow welding. For non-welded styles like lap joints or threaded flanges, weldability is not a major concern, and other requirements will take precedence.


Choosing the ideal flange for work refers to the standards required for your intended application. You must consider the pipe material that can connect to the flange and ensure that the flange material you choose is rated for the pressure and temperature it must withstand.

At Texas Flange, we offer all types of flanges for various systems. Our specialists can help you to identify the right flange for your equipment. If you want more information, contact us today!

Socket Weld Fittings Types and Applications

We are already aware of the four connecting types for the pipe fittings: Slip on flanges, Threaded flanges, Socket Weld (counter bore), and Butt Weld Neck. In terms of the steel pipe fittings that you would use for your pipeline projects, you will find two of them to be quite popular: butt weld fittings and socket weld fittings.

Since both of them seem to have their share of advantages and disadvantages, you may be confused about which one is the best for your particular purpose.

To learn more about socket weld fittings, read on below.

Meaning of socket weld pipe fittings

A socket weld flange fitting is a pipe attachment detail with a socket and counter bore. In this case, you can insert the pipe into a recessed area of flange or fitting. To join the valves or pipes to the other sections of the pipe, seal welds of fillet type together. In several cases, socket weld fittings are a good choice. The benefits of high leakage integrity and great structural strength would be quite an essential factor that needs to be taken into consideration when designing your pipeline project.

Socket Weld Fittings Types and Applications

Usage of socket weld fittings

Socket weld fittings are termed to be used for low to medium pressure in confined spaces, and could easily be used in a diverse range of industrial processes.

Applied in the places where pipework has been deemed to be permanent. In addition, they have also been designed in a manner that provides characteristics of good flow.

Used in conjunction with ASME pipe and for to change to different dimensions.

Socket weld pipe fittings like reducers, tees, elbows, etc can be used at pipelines for conveying expensive, flammable, or toxic materials where there would be no scope of leakage.

Manufactured under ASTM standards and also according to ASME B16.5 /16.11

Types of Socket weld pipe fittings

Like the butt weld fittings, based on material types, socket weld fittings also include a variety of materials as stainless steel pipe fittings, alloy steel flanges, and carbon steel flanges. Based on the applications, it includes flanges, couplings, reducers, reducing tee, socket weld inserts, and socket weld elbows, etc.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Socket Weld

Below are some advantages and disadvantages of the socket weld:


The pipe often does not need to be end finished properly for the preparation of an insert weld.

Temporary tack welding usually doesn’t need alignment. It is because the principle in fitting would help to make sure that it has a proper alignment.

The socket weld insert will not be able to penetrate the bore of the pipe.

Costs of construction are sometimes lower than butt-welded joints. Due to the elimination of special machines, it lacks the exact fit-up bevel requirements.


The welder must make sure that the expansion gap between the pipe and the shoulder of the socket must be of a certain distance, often approaching 1.6mm.

The expansion gap and internal crevices in the socket weld system may promote corrosion with certain media. It would be because of this reason that they have been deemed to be less suitable for corrosive or radioactive applications.

These types of fittings would also be unacceptable for Ultra High Hydrostatic Pressure in food industries. The reason could be the addition to not allow full penetration. It would also leave gaps and crevices that would then become difficult to clean.

Differences between butt weld and socket weld fittings

In the case of socket weld fittings, the referred standard is ASME B16.11. You can insert a pipe in a recessed area of the fitting. You can square cut both the pipe and fitting and do not require any beveled end or preparation other than cleaning the outside. It will ease out the welding processes and installation.

When we talk about butt weld fittings, as pet standard ASME B16.9, the ends being welded onto the pipe end, the thickness would be the same as those of pipes. In this case, the end of the fittings could be beveled to match the application.

Application and installation of socket weld fittings

The socket weld usually has less strength resistance in comparison to butt weld fittings. So, SW fittings are used mainly for the smaller pipeline with diameters NPS 3 or less when available.

In the case of SW fittings, you can find it quite easy to install. Since it often requires around 1/6 inch of the gap at the bottom of the gap to allow the socket access, it also allows thermal expansion. However, the gap could lead to the problems of overstressing that will crack the fillet weld of the fitting. In addition, socket weld has also been found to be problematic in corrosive fluid service as a result of crevice corrosion. The media of the application must be considered.


Socket weld or SW fittings could help you in many ways, and in this blog, we have tried to cover almost all aspects that could help you get a better basic understanding. If you have any inquiries regarding  socket weld fittings and socket weld flanges, contact us today!

Main Causes For Flange Leaks and How to Fix Them?

Piping systems play an essential role in worldwide infrastructure. These systems have been around for decades. Installing a piping system is not an easy task. If components like flanges are not properly selected and lack the right flange connection, corrosion and leaks could occur. When corrosion and leaks occur, a breakdown in the assembly can happen and cause a monstrous mess.

Below are few possible causes of corrosion and how to avoid it.

Bolt Stress

There are a lot of things that may put stress on the bolts. Vibrations that occur during the normal operating conditions tend to bolt movement leading to corrosion and leakage. Although the vibrations happen by normal operations, it is still something that you can avoid to a degree. Tightening the bolts seems to be an obvious solution, but you need to consider how often you need to check them.

Main Causes For Flange Leaks and How to Fix Them

Temperature also plays a part in how well bolts connect and whether they are successful in preventing leaks. Temperature fluctuations happen during an increase in temperature and cause bolts to become loose and not seal properly. Minimizing temperature fluctuation when possible is ideal.

Due to the usual operating procedures for high-stress environments, you can expect to tighten and check bolts due to temperature fluctuations. When bolts are tightened and checked, and the issue does not seem to be remedied, you may be dealing with another issue besides expected wear from normal operating procedures.

Thermal Stress

The temperature of the product (inside a tube heat exchanger and shell for example) can vary. However, the distortion caused by the rapid change from cool to hot solutions is inevitable in few cases. If this is the case, it is essential to ensure all parts of the exchanger are designed to account for temperature distortion. Alloys are considered carefully by engineers for this very reason.

If you want to determine your requirements, special considerations need to be made regarding the flange dimensions. Next, determine the temperature of a high load area within the tube and a random area on the shell side. Calculate the difference between the tube side outlet and inlet and the difference between the random area on the tube side and the shell side.

Other Stresses

Many things can produce stress on the bolts of the flange connections, but one, in particular, is the stress on both sides of the flange assembly point. When circumstances happen to cause one side to be tightened more than the other, the gasket becomes damaged, resulting in leakage. It can happen by improper bolting procedures during the initial installation.

Sometimes these pipes are assembled in small spaces, making it hard to reach specific bold to tighten them. It can lead to some bolts being properly tightened while the others are not as tight. The same amount of pressure needs to be applied to all bolts. It helps to hold the gasket securely in place due to corrosion and leakage.


It may not be easy to spot imperfections. Sometimes warped surfaces can lead to improper installation. If the flange face is warped or has other deformities, improper seals tend to occur. While the issue may not cause direct interruptions in the flow, it can cause corrosion and leaks. Just like other pipe fittings, flanges usually need to work in conditions free from any defects to work properly. Some of the defects are easier to notice than others. A welded face may be harder to recognize, and it could easily get overlooked. Flange face re-machining is a common remedy in these cases.

Need Of Additional Hardware

A recurring problem in a tube and shell heat exchanger, bolts need to stay secure, despite efforts to tighten them using the proven techniques. Even after hydraulic tensioning and hot torquing, the bolts would loosen and cause problematic leaking in the plant.

Researchers identified two problems: gasket scuffing and excessive bolt load. The excessive bolt load happens due to temperature differentials. If you want to combat this issue, install disc spring washers before you replace the bolts. They found that these were more capable of handling the load to the bolts without allowing flange deformation in most cases.

The second issue of gasket scuffing was likely due to movement during operation and caused enough damage to the gasket, that even with adequate bolt tightness, it would continue to leak. The gasket needs replacement, but the problem also needs to be addressed so the new gasket would not also fall into disrepair. If you want to avoid this, a weld ring consists of two separate halves of the gasket ring welded together to contain the gasket material and prevent any deformation.


If you are experiencing gasket leaks in your tube and shell heat exchangers, it could indicate that something is amiss in your equipment. The staff at Texas Flange are happy to help point you in the right direction and recommend the right sourcing for your assembly hardware needs along with the usual flange and fitting products we provide our customers every day.

5 Key benefits of Flanges

Flanges are helpful to connect pumps, valves, pipes, and other parts to form a piping system. Flanges are typically welded or thread screwed to connect. The use of flanges allows a person for maintenance and easy repair of the pipe system. Instead of taking out the whole pipe for inspection, the smaller section of the pipe can be inspected to find the fault with the help of a flange. The flange connection point allows for reinforcement of the system, as well as pipe cleaning and easy inspection.

You can join the two flanges together by bolts using a gasket between them for seal. Most steel flanges are used in the gas industry, oil industry, petroleum industry, and chemical industry. The essential types of flanges are threaded flange, lap joint flange, blind flange, socket flange, weld neck flange, and slip-on flange. Some special types of flanges are special bevel neck flanges, long welding flanges, nipoflange, reducing flanges, expander flanges, and orifice flanges.

Materials used in flange

High performance yield strength steel: ASTM/ASME A694 F42 , F52, F56, F60, F65, F70

Low temperature steel: ASTM/ASME A350 LF2.

Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A182 F321-321H, F347-347H

Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A182 F316-316L-316H-316LN-316N-316Ti

Stainless steel: ASTM/ASME A182 F304-304L-304H-304LN-304N

Chrome alloy steel: ASTM/ASME A182 F1-F12-F11-F22- F5-F9- F91

Carbon steel: ASTM A105, ASTM A105N, GB 20, C22.8.

Flange dimensions

5 Key benefits of Flanges

The flange dimensions vary by style, and each flange type comes with a standard dimension definition. The dimension of the flanges is the same worldwide for repair and maintenance work and smooth operations. The dimensions are usually published in both inches and millimeters.

The basic dimensions of the flange consist of outside diameter, number of bolts, thickness, and hub detail. The bolts are usually located on the front outside the flange. The gasket used between the two flanges has the same bolt holes and size as that of the flange facing.

Benefits of the flanges

Even though you can find a specified application where the flanges and fittings are the only practical choice, flanges also provide benefits to the piping system that traditional hydraulic fitting types do not. For example, in the larger OD applications, flanges are often unable to connect to the pipe and component ports more easily compared to the adapters or threaded fittings. Most importantly, in most severe service applications on mobile construction equipment flange connections are suitable for:

1. Easy assembly at tight spaces where wrenches might not have clearance if you install traditional flange fittings. They are more easily assembled with moderate torque.

2. Hard-to-reach areas where you need flexibility, you can eliminate the need for adapters in the hose line, pipe, or tube.

3. Pipe connections, tubes, or large hose connections where you find high pressure, vibration, or shock pressures are present, that could more easily damage the traditional large hydraulic fittings.

4. Making connections allows for easy maintenance in rigid lines like metal tubes or continuous pipes.

5. Reduce the chance of components becoming loose in rigorous hydraulic applications.

The use of flange connections at high-pressure circumstances and larger size allows easy assembly of overusing the larger fittings. The flanges come with zero-clearance assembly, easy reconnecting and disconnecting for maintenance of hose, manifold, and tube connections could be much faster and provide the ability for more accurate torque of the bolts as opposed try achieve the proper torque of a large fitting. Flange fittings and flange connections are less likely to loosen compared to a standard hydraulic fitting when there is a proper load distribution of clamping around the flange head. You may think of it as bolting the wheel of your car onto the brake or hub drum disk. If you do not tighten the lug nuts, the star pattern wheel will not tighten and maintain a connection. It may cause warping of the brake drum, rotor, or brake disc.


Flange connections are one of the best options for pipe end connections that have bends that are subjected to very high lateral forces inclined to cause the loosening of the assembly. The five benefits mentioned above clearly define the key benefits of the flanges.

If you need assistance to know more about the flange bolt tightening or choosing the right type of flange, contact Texas Flange today!

Specification and Types of Carbon Steel Flanges

The manufacturing of carbon steel pipes happens by using various techniques that produce a pipe with various characteristics. The carbon content present in the carbon steel pipe can be up to 2.1 percent of the weight of the total alloys.

An increase in the carbon percentage in the alloy helps to increase the tensile strength and hardness of the metal. The black carbon steel jacketed pipe would lose its ductile properties, even with a rise in the percentage of carbon.

About Carbon Steel Flanges

The manufacturing of Carbon Steel Flange is from various carbon steel grades. Common standards include DIN (2533 and other subspecs), MSS SP-44, ASTM A105N, and ASTM A694. They accompany pressure ratings from class 150 to 2500 in imperial and PN10 to PN40 for metric.

Carbon steel is the kind of steel that contains a carbon content of up to 2.1% by weight. AISI defines carbon steel as:

Maximum Mn 1.65%, Si 0.06%

Specified minimum of Cu shall not exceed 0.04%.

No alloy element (minimum content) is required for Cr, Mo, Ni, Ti, Va, etc.

With the increase of carbon element content, the steel will become stronger and sturdier after heat treatment. On the contrary, it becomes less ductile, which may be useful for your application. A high amount of carbon will reduce weldability if it is created without heat treatment.

Carbon steel may include alloy steel if not used as stainless steel.

Specification and Types of Carbon Steel Flanges

Various specifications of carbon steel pipes

Carbon Steel Pipes are available in a wide range of sizes of about ½” NB to 48” NB. The manufacturing of carbon steel pipes happens in many standards, namely, ASTM A/ASME SA 333 Grade 1,6; API 5L – PSL 1 Gr. A, B, X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70; ASTM A/ASME SA 53 Grade A, B; ASTM A/ASME SA 106 Grade A, B, C.

The design of carbon steel pipes ranges as per the level of thickness. The range starts from SCH 40, SCH 80, SCH 160, or so on. The CS pipes find their applications in the industries like General Engineering, Pressure Vessels, Sugar, Steel, Boiler Equipment, Petrochemicals, Oil Refineries, and Power Generation (Thermal/Nuclear). Production of most carbon steel pipes is from Grade B steel for years and has a minimum yield strength of 35,000 psi.

Different types of Carbon Steel Pipes

Carbon Steel pipes are manufactured in various types like:

  Carbon Steel ERW Pipes

They have various features like intricate detailing, precision-engineered, appropriately structured, corrosion resistance, lightweight, economical and more. The ERW pipes are used in General & Heavy Engineering, Transmission Towers, Coal & Mining, Oil & Petro Chemicals, Boilers & Pressure Vessels, Automobile, and Ship Building.

  Carbon Steel Welded Pipes

The pipes are helpful during high-pressure conditions. In a wide range of industries like transport of waste and water, carbon steel pipes, chemical manufacturing, high-pressure applications, and oil & gas industries commonly use carbon steel pipes.

  Carbon Steel Fabricated Pipes

They offer tensile strength with corrosion resistance and high durability. The carbon steel fabricated pipes are useful in various industries. The industries include the following: desalination industry, ships industry, food industry, pulp and paper industry, energy industry, metallurgical industry, oil & gas industry, and chemical industry.

  Carbon Steel ASTM A335 Pipes

The ASTM A335 Seamless pipe consists of carbon steel with a minimum tensile strength of 415 MPa and minimum yield strength of 205 MPa. The material has high resistance and high durability to wear and tear. The manufacturing is of molybdenum, chromium, silicon, sulfur, phosphorus, manganese, and carbon. The composition of the ASME SA335 Grade Chrome Pipe helps give the characteristics of pipes. It includes corrosion resistance, hot hardness, wear resistance, stiffness, and strength.

  Carbon Steel Seamless Pipes

It contains more iron and carbon in its composition. The quality of the pipes depends on the materials present in them. It has copper, manganese, and trace amounts of silicon. Therefore, the Carbon Steel Seamless Pipe material is sturdier and resistant to stress. In heavy-duty facilities, the features make the pipes applicable.

  Carbon Steel LSAW Pipes

It has some fine features such as easy installation, rustproof and seamless finish. These LSAW pipes are expensive and not widely popular in lower value non-energy applications like water pipelines.


The specifications and types of carbon steel flanges are listed above. The blog will help you to get a better understanding of both the aspects of Carbon Steel flanges.

To learn more about stainless steel super duplex flange, visit https://www.texasflange.com/carbon-steel-flanges/.